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Birushana Buddha (Birushana butsu 毘盧舍那佛, 毘盧遮那佛)

Abbreviated as Rushana Buddha (Rushana butsu 盧遮那佛). S. Vairocana, "shining one," a name that originally meant the sun, to which the Buddha's wisdom is compared. 1. The central buddha of the Flower Garland Sutra (Kegonkyō, C. Huayanjing 華嚴經). 2. In the Shingon (C. Zhenyan 眞言) school of esoteric Buddhism, Birushana is the Tathagata Dainichi (Dainichi nyorai 大日如來), the "Great Sun" (Dainichi 大日) Buddha who is the universal ground of being. 3. In the Tendai (C. Tiantai 天台) school's interpretation of the doctrine of the three bodies (sanshin 三身, S. trikāya) of Buddha, Birushana 毘盧遮那 is the dharma body (hosshin 法身, S. dharmakāya), Rushana 盧舍那 is the response body (ōshin應身, S. sambhogakāya), and Shakamuni is the transformation body (keshin 化身, S. nirmāakāya) of the Buddha. The verse of Ten Buddha Names (Jūbutsumyō 十佛名) used in Japanese Zen begins with those three names.