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Keizan Jōkin ( 瑩山紹瑾)


Keizan's Rules (Keigi 瑩規). An abbreviation of →Keizan's Rules of Purity (Keizan shingi 瑩山清規).

Keizan's Rules of Purity (Keizan shingi 瑩山清規). T 82.423c-451c. A text, originally entitled Ritual Procedures for Tōkoku Mountain Yōkō Zen Monastery in Nō Province (Nōshū tōkokuzan yōkōzenji gyōji shidai 能州洞谷山永光禪寺行事次第), written by the abbot Keizan Jōkin in 1324. Keizan seems to have compiled it as a handbook of ritual events and liturgical texts for use in the single monastery named in its title. The text contains a detailed calendar of daily, monthly, and annual observances that the monks of Yōkō Zen Monastery were to engage in, and the dedications of merit (ekō 囘向) statements of purpose (sho 疏) that they were to chant on those various occasions. It thus had the basic functions of a schedule of activities and a liturgical manual, as well as laying out a few rules and ritual procedures for monastic officers. It shared those features with the Rules of Purity for the Huanzhu Hermitage (Genjūan shingi 幻住菴清規), a manual written in 1317 by the eminent Zen master ChūhōMyōhon (C.Zhongfen Mingben 中峰明本; 1263–1323). Keizan probably modeled his text on that or some other similarly organized work imported from Yuan dynasty China. In 1678, the monk Gesshū Sōko月舟宗胡 (1618-1696) and his disciple Manzan Dōhaku 卍山道白 (1636-1715), two monks active in the movement to reform Soto Zen by "restoring the old" (fukko 復古) modes of practice originally implemented by Dōgen and Keizan, took the set of rules written for Yōkōji and published them for the first time under the title of Reverend Keizan's Rules of Purity (Keizan oshō shingi 瑩山和尚清規). From that point on the text became a standard reference work used in many Soto Zen monasteries. In its organization and contents, Keizan's Rules of Purity is the direct predecessor of the present Standard Obsevances of the Soto Zen School (Sōtōshū gyōji kihan 曹洞宗行持規範).