Zenjis Genjo-koan Lecture (11)
Soto Zen Buddhism International Center
by Koshin Steve Kelly)
Master Hotetsu of Mt. Mayoku was using a fan. A monk approached
him and asked, The nature of wind is everpresent and
permeates everywhere. Why do you use a fan?
master said, You know only that wind
nature is ever-present, you dont know that
it permeates everywhere.
monk said, How does wind permeate everywhere?
master just continued using the fan.
monk bowed deeply.
genuine experience of Buddha dharma enlightenment
and the vital path that has been correctly transmitted
is like this. To say we should not use a fan because the nature
of wind is ever-present, and that we should feel the wind
even when we dont use a fan, is to know neither ever-presence
nor the winds nature. Since the winds nature
is ever-present, the wind of the Buddhas family enables
us to realize the gold of the great earth and to transform
the [water of] the long river into cream.
Master Mayoku Hotetsu
Hotetsu (Magu Baoche, ?-?) was a Chinese Zen master who
trained in Zen with Baso Doitsu (Mazu Daoi, 709-788) and
succeeded his dharma. As was the custom in China at the
time, Mayoku took his name from the mountain on which he
lived after he became a teacher.
Dogen Zenjis collection of three hundred koans entitled
Mana-Shobogenzo he included three stories regarding Mayoku.
One of them (No. 123) is the one he quotes here in Genjo-koan.
one (No. 244 of Mana-Shobogenzo) also appears in
the Rinzai-roku (The Record of Zen Master Rinzai). This
is the story of Mayokus visit to Master Rinzai (Linji).
(This story appears in Zen Teachings of Master Linchi,
translated by Burton Watson P.12.)
once asked Rinzai, [The Bodhisattva of] the Great
Compassion (Avalokitesvara) has one thousand eyes. Which
one is the true eye?
Rinzai said, [The Bodhisattva of] the Great Compassion
has one thousand eyes. Which one is the true eye? Say quickly!
Mayoku grabbed Rinzais hand and dragged him down
from his seat and Mayoku sat on the seat.
Rinzai finally stood up and said, How are you?
Mayoku tried to say something. Rinzai shouted and grabbed
Mayokus hand and dragged him down from his seat
and he sat in it. Mayoku walked out of the hall.
Rinzai-roku also includes another similar story about Mayoku
and Rinzai, which goes as follows. (The
Zen Teaching of Master Linchi P.98)
Mayoku visited [Rinzai]. He spread his sitting cloth and
asked, The Avalokiteshvara has twelve faces. Which
one is the true face?
The master came down from the corded-chair. He folded the
sitting cloth and hung it in one hand and with the other
hand he held Mayoku and said, Where has the twelve-faced
Mayoku turned his body and tried to sit on Rinzais
The master held his monks staff and hit him.
Mayoku grabbed the staff. Both held on one end of it and
went off to the masters room.
can see, these two stories are very similar. I think they
are two different versions developed from the same original
story. In these stories, Mayoku and Rinzai each take a role
being the face and eyes of Avalokiteshvara. The stories
suggest that both Mayoku and Rinzai had in fact, the true
eyes and face of the Bodhisattva of Great compassion. From
these stories we can see that Master Rinzai held Mayoku
in great respect. In the Rinzai-roku, Rinzai said that Mayoku
was one of the important Zen masters for him. Although Obaku
was his main teacher, he also introduced four masters he
had been influenced by.
Followers of the way, this mountain monks
buddha dharma has been transmitted to me in a very clear
line, from Master Mayoku, Master Tanka (Danxia), Master
Doitsu (Daoi), the Master Rosan (Lu-shan) and Master Sekkyo
(Shi-kung). This single road permeates the entire world.
But no one trusts this, and everyone slanders it.
then goes on to comment on each masters style. He
says about Mayoku, Mayokus way of doing
things was as bitter as the bark of the Chinese cork tree;
no one could get near him. The word Rinzai used
for Chinese cork tree is obaku, the name
of Rinzais own master Obaku Kiun (Huanbo Xiyun,
was a disciple of Baso Doitsu and Rinzai was a third generation
disciple of Baso (Baso to Hyakujo, Hyakujo to Obaku and
Obaku to Rinzai). Because of this we can safely assume Mayoku
must have been much older than Rinzai. This is also indicated
by the two stories in Rinzai-roku, where it seems that Mayuoku
shares the same level of understanding as Master Rinzai.
There does exist a lack of solid information regarding Mayokus
true identity in the source texts however. In the Rinzai
section of the Keitoku Dentoroku (Jingde Chuandeng Lu, Transmission
of Dharma Lamp), there is a note that this Mayoku was the
second abbot of Mt. Mayoku, but in Mayokus biography
written after his death by his only disciple Ryosui (Liangsui),
there is no mention of this. In the Mana-Shobogenzo,
Dogen Zenji says this Mayoku was the Dharma heir of Baso.
There is a chance that this information might have been
a mistake. But I think the Mayoku whom Rinzai mentioned
as a source of his dharma was Mayoku Hotetsu, who was Basos
Way is endless
second story of Mayoku in Mana-Shobogenzo No.121) is about
Mayoku Hotestsu and Jushu Ryosui Shouchou Liangsui ?-?)
the man who would eventually become his Dharma successor.
Before he visited Mayoku, Ryosui was a Buddhist lecturer.
first visited Mayoku. Upon seeing Ryosui coming, Mayoku
took a hoe and went to hoeing up weeds. Although Ryosui
went to where Mayoku was working, Mayoku paid no attention
to him, but rather immediately went back to the abbots
room and shut the gate.
The next day, Ryosui visited again and Mayoku shut the
gate again. Ryosui then knocked on the gate. Mayoku asked,
Who is this?(Who are you)?
He said, Ryosui.
Upon calling out his own name, Ryosui suddenly attained
realization. He said, Master, do not impose upon
Ryosui. If I had not come to see you, I would be deceived
by the sutras and commentaries in my whole life.
When Ryosui went back, he gave a speech to his assembly,
All that you know, Ryosui knows. What Ryosui knows,
you dont know.
Then he quit giving lectures and dispersed his assembly.
clear from this story that Ryosui was a lecturer, and had
much knowledge of Buddhist philosophy. Yet somehow, he felt
he lacked something very important. That was why he visited
Mayoku. Mayoku at first completely ignored him. When Mayoku
finally asked him, Who are you? Ryosui understood
that Buddhas teaching was not a philosophical system
but rather a mirror to show him his own essential Self.
After finally fulfilling this lack, Ryosui knew he had been
deceived by the sutras and commentaries.
the Shobogenzo Zuimonki, there is a record of Dogens
informal talk regarding this story.
beginners in the Way should just practice [the Way] following
the other members of the sangha. Do not be in a hurry
to study and understand the essential points and ancient
examples. It is good to understand such things without
misinterpretation when you enter the mountains or seclude
yourselves in a city. If you practice following the other
practitioners, you will surely attain the Way. It is like
making a voyage. Even though you dont know how
to steer the ship, if you leave everything to the skill
of the sailors, whether you understand or not, you will
reach the other shore. Only if you follow a good teacher
and practice with fellow practitioners without harboring
personal views, will you naturally become a person of
the Way. Students of the Way, even if you have attained
enlightenment, do not stop practicing. Do not think that
you have reached the pinnacle. The Way is endless. Even
if you have attained realization, continue to practice
the Way. Remember the story of Ryosui who visited Zen
master Mayoku. (Zuimonki 6-7 translated by Shohaku Okumura)
this informal talk in Zuimonki, we can see that Mayoku is
a venerable master not only for Rinzai, but for Dogen Zenji
as well. The point of this story is that true practice is
to continually inquire about the dharma forever. The Way
is endless, and this is the same point he makes in the section
(10) of Genjo-koan using the analogy of sailing on
great ocean, however, is neither round nor square. It
has inexhaustible characteristics. [To a fish], it looks
like a palace; [to a heavenly being] a jeweled necklace.
[To us] as far as our eyes can see, it looks like a circle.
All the myriad things are like this. Within the dusty
world and beyond, there are innumerable aspects and characteristics;
we only see or grasp as far as the power of our eye of
study and practice can see. When we listen to the reality
of myriad things, we must know that there are inexhaustible
characteristics in either oceans or mountains and there
are many other worlds in the four directions. This is
true not only in the external world, but it is the same
right under our feet or within a single drop of water.
this example, it appears that Dogen Zenji is trying to say
the same thing using the story of wind-nature.
using the fan
the Mana-Shobogenzo version of our story, there
are a few small differences from the version that exists
in the Genjo-koan. I will introduce the story from
the Mana- Shobogenzo (No.123) with a literal translation.
Zen master Hotetsu of Mt. Mayoku was Basos
heir. One day he was using a fan. A monk asked him,
The windnature abides permanently and there
is no place it does not permeate. Why do you swing a
The master said, You know only that winds
nature abides permanently, you dont
know that there is no place it does not permeate.
The monk said, What is the principle of that
there is no place wind-nature does not permeate?
The master swung the fan all the more.
The monk made a prostration.
The master said, Even if I have thousand monks,
what is the merit of those monks if they dont
have the actual function?
of the eminent Soto scholar monks in the Edo period, Shigetsu
Ein (1689-1764) made a short comment on each of the three
hundred koans in Mana Shobogenzo entitled Nentei
Sanbyakusoku Funogo (Holding and Commenting the Three
Hundreds Cases; The Indescribable). Shigetsus
comment on this story is: This story certainly
causes the wind even today. Mayoku swung the fan and the
monk made a prostration. What is this? In this
comment, what is this is not a question
but a statement. Shigetsu means that within the actions
of Mayokus using a fan and the monks prostration,
the reality beyond word and concepts manifests itself.
and using-a fan.
have introduced a few stories about Zen Master Mayoku
to show that he was an important Chinese master for both
Rinzai and Dogen. In these stories, we see that Mayoku
put his emphasis on practice and function (work or actions
as expressions of dharma) instead of intellectual understanding.
Dogen will later introduce many other stories (in his
Chiji-shingi, Pure Standards for the Temple Administrators)
that contain the same theme.
at the end of Genjo-koan, he introduces the story
of wind-nature and using a fan as a good example of what
he has been discussing in Genjo-koan.
this wind-nature refers to buddha-nature. The monk who
questioned Hotetsu thought that buddhanature was like
wind-nature, being ever-present in time and all-pervading
in space. If we study the history of Mahayana Buddhist
philosophy, we find that this is a very different understanding
from the original concept of buddha-nature.
India, the word thathagata-garbha was more commonly
used than buddha-nature. Garbha means womb or embryo.
So tathagata-garba means the womb or the embryo
of the tathagata. Another way to say it is, tathagatha-
garbha means that all living beings are the womb in
which the embryo (of the tathagata) is contained.
We are containers (wombs) of the tathagata. In
living beings, the tathagata is still in the stage
of an embryo. It is hidden and not revealed. But if we
take a good care of the embryo, it will be born and grow
and sometime in the future and will become a real tathagata.
word buddha-nature was first used in the
Maha-Parinirvana Sutra. The most famous statement on buddha-nature
in the sutra is, All living beings without exception
have buddha-nature. In China, this expression
and understanding of buddha-nature became
much more popular than the teaching of tathagata-garbha.
the original concept of buddha-nature
is that the potential of a tathagata is stored
in living beings. But because it is only potential, buddha-nature
is still hidden hidden and it does not yet work. One of
the famous analogies of this kind of understanding about
buddha-nature is a diamond covered with rock and dirt.
We have buddhanature within us (the diamond) but it is
still concealed by delusion (rocks and dirt). First we
have to discover the diamond. Then we take the dirt and
rocks off and polish the diamond. Then the beauty of diamond
is revealed and we will become enlightened buddhas.
theory of tathagata-garbha or buddha-nature has
been problematic in the history of Buddhist philosophy,
because it sounds like the Hindu theory of the atman
(or an individual separate existence) that Shakyamuni
Buddha clearly negated. The basic theory of the atman
is that it is a pure changeless spiritual nature concealed
within a body that is the source of delusion and defilement.
As far as the atman is imprisoned in the body, we create
karma and cannot be released from transmigration within
samsara. So, the purpose of religious practice is to separate
the atman from the prison of body.
in Chinese Zen
theory of tathagata-garbha or buddha-nature became
a basis of the teachings of many Chinese Buddhist schools
through the influence of a work entitled Daijo-kishin-ron
(Awakening the Faith in the Mahayana). In the text it
is said that the One Mind or life
of living beings (shujo-shin, literally the mind/heart
of living beings) has two aspects. One is the aspect of
Mind in terms of the Absolute (tathata; suchness
itself). Another is the aspect of mind in terms of phenomena
(samsara; birth and death). It is said these two
aspects are mutually inclusive. The absolute tathata
is like water and living beings in samsara are like the
waves of water caused by the wind of ignorance. In terms
of absolute tathata, all living beings (waves)
are fundamentally the same as tathagata (water) and enlightened
from the beginning. This side is called the original
enlightenment (hongaku) or ultimate reality
(li). But living beings are influenced by the wind
of ignorance and create karma and then transmigrate within
samsara, the basic idea is that we need to practice and
become free from the ignorance and return to the original
enlightenment. This is called the process of actualization
of enlightenment (shikaku) or concrete
reality (ji). It is said As for the ultimate
reality (li), all living beings are enlightened
and buddhas as they are from the beginning, but as for
phenomenal reality (ji), we are deluded living
beings and therefore we need to study and practice in
order to restore the original enlightenment and become
a enlightened buddha.
is a very rough description of the basic theory of buddha-nature
in Chinese Buddhism.
famous debate regarding sudden enlightenment and gradual
enlightenment between the Southern School and the Northern
School of Chinese Zen are about which side of the One
Mind they put emphasis on, the original enlightenment
(hongaku) or process of actualization of
enlightenment (shikaku). This debate is
clearly expressed in the biography of the sixth ancestor
Eno (Huineng), in the section with Jinshus poem
about the mirror (polish it to keep it bright), and Enos
response (there is no mirror).
scholars often say that due to the influence of Baso (Mazu),
Zen masters stressed the concrete reality in front of
our eyes and taught that our actions are nothing other
than the manifestations of tathata (suchness).
The two famous sayings of Baso and his students were,
the mind itself is buddha (sokushin zebutsu)
and ordinary mind is the Way. Their basic
attitude was viewing ultimate reality (li) within
concrete phenomena (ji). In other words, buddha
nature is not something hidden in living beings but all
beings are manifestations of tathata. Concrete
phenomena are themselves ultimate reality.
is what the monk meant when he said to Mayoku Hotetsu,
Wind-nature is ever-present and all pervading.
That meant buddha-nature is always revealed and never
hidden in all time and space. But this idea causes another
problem. If this is true, why did Mayoku have to use a
fan to reveal wind (Buddha nature)? If everything
is the manifestation of the ultimate reality (tathata)
and we are enlightened from the beginning, why we have
to study and practice? This is a very natural question.
fact it is mentioned as Dogen Zenjis original
question that sent him to China. But Mayoku did not answer
this question with a theoretical explanation. Rather he
just continued to use the fan. What Dogen wants to show
here is that practice not a philosophical debate. If we
want to argue with our teacher (or anyone else), we can
do so endlessly. Dogens suggestion here is that
we stop arguing and just make a prostration to the person
who knows how to use a fan (how to practice). Here we
should sincerely ask ourselves a few questions such as,
Have I ever met a person who is actually using
a fan? Can I make a sincere prostration to them? What
is the value of this action and what does it say about
of original enlightenment in Japan
I said before, this question of action was a problem for
Dogen himself. When Dogen was ordained as a Tendai monk,
the movement called Tendai Hongaku Homon (the dharma
gate of original enlightenment) was very popular. The
theory put emphasis on concrete phenomena (ji)
itself as the absolute and ultimate reality. In other
words, deluded living beings are themselves enlightened
to his biography, Dogen Zenji had a question regarding
this theory when he was a teenager. If all beings
are the dharma-nature from the beginning, why do all buddhas
have to arise bodhi-mind, go through difficult practices,
attain awakening and enter nirvana? If we are
paying attention here we can see that Dogens question
about the theory of original enlightenment and the monks
question to Mayoku Hotetsu is the same question. If all
phenomena are themselves ultimate reality and all living
beings are themselves buddha-nature, why we have to study
and practice? Why we have to make all this effort to make
our world and ourselves better?
eventually put this question to his teacher Tendo Nyojo
(Tiantong Rujing, 1163-1228), and recorded their dialog
in the Hokyoki. One of the questions Dogen gave
to Nyojo was,
in the past and present have said that self-awareness
is like a fish that knows whether the water is cold
or warm when it drinks. This Wisdom is awakening and
the realization of enlightenment. I (Dogen) criticized
this understanding. If self-awareness is the true awakening,
then all living beings have such awareness. Because
all living being know themselves as [cold or warm, itchy
or in pain], they are all tathagatas with true awakening?
Some people said, Yes, all living beings are
the original tathagata from the beginingless beginning.
Others said, All living beings are not necessarily
tathagatas. Why is this so? If they know that the self-awareness
and natural wisdom are [supreme awakening] they are
tathagatas, and unless they know it, they are not [tathagatas].
Are these opinions buddha dharma, or not?
To this question from Dogen, Tendo Nyojo answered:
If they say that all living beings are from the
beginning buddhas, they are the same as the Non-Buddhists
of naturalness. Comparing self and attributes of the
self to buddhas is nothing other than considering those
who have not yet attained as those who have attained
and those who are not enlightened as those who are enlightened.
said such an understanding is not in accordance with Buddhas
teachings but that of Non-Buddhists who say that
everything natural is itself enlightenment and all man-made
things come from delusion and are therefore unnecessary
or even evil. This reply from Nyojo became foundation
of Dogens teaching after he went back to Japan.
(Universal Recommendation of Zazen)
after he went back to Japan Dogen wrote a manual of zazen
practice entitled Fukanzazengi (Universal Recommendation
of Zazen). In the very beginning of his first exposition,
the Way is complete and universal. How can we distinguish
practice from enlightenment? The Vehicle of Reality
is in the self. Why should we waste our efforts trying
to attain it? Still more, the whole body is free from
the worlds dust. Why should we believe in a means to
sweep it away? The Way is never separated from where
we are now. Why should we wander here and there to practice?
Yet, if there is the slightest deviation, you will be
as far from the Way as heaven is from earth. If adverse
or favorable conditions arise to even a small degree,
you will lose your mind in confusion.
Moreover, consider Shakyamuni Buddha who was enlightened
from birth, to this day you can see the traces of his
sitting in the upright posture for six years. And Bodhidharma
who transmitted the mind-seal; even now you can hear
of the fame of his facing the wall for nine years. These
ancient sages practiced in this way. How can you people
of today refrain from practice!
Dogen clearly says, even though the Way is perfect
and universal, we still need to practice as Shakyamuni
Buddha and Bodhidharma did. Why? He does not explain at
depth. He just says we should do it simply because they
(Wholehearted practice of the Way)
is Dogens second essay and was written in 1231,
four years after he came back from China. In this piece,
he first describes the practice of zazen as jijuyu-zanmai
and says, when we sit in an upright posture,
the entire universe becomes enlightenment.
For him, the practice of zazen is the pivotal point
that makes the entire universe into enlightenment.
the question and answer section of Bendowa, Dogen discusses
various views regarding practice and enlightenment. Questions
10 and 16 refer to the view that we have buddha-nature
inside of us and are therefore buddha from the beginning.
To know that is enough and we dont need to practice.
7 is from the viewpoint (which Dogen did not agree with)
that, we need to practice in order to attain enlightenment
but it is not necessary once we have attained enlightenment.
This was a common understanding of Rinzai Zen. As we have
discussed before, this view puts emphasis on the process
of actualization of enlightenment (shikaku).
According to this view, in the ultimate reality we are
all enlightened from the beginning, but in the actuality,
we are deluded. So we need to practice until we re-discover
the buddha nature by a kensho experience. But after having
attained enlightenment (kensho), zazen practice
is not needed.
questions are examples of two extremes that
Dogen found while he was searching for the answer to his
own question, why practice?
chronological order, Genjo-koan is Dogens
fourth discourse. Before Genjo-koan he wrote Maka-Hannya-
Haramitsu (Maha-prajna-paramita) in the summer of
1233. That was also the year Dogen founded his own monastery
Koshoji. In the fall of the same year he wrote Genjo-koan
and gave it to his lay student, Yokoshu. Later he put
Genjo-koan at the very beginning of the collection
of his treatise in Japanese entitled Shobogenzo
and made Maka-Hannya-Haramitsu the second chapter.
I think these two are closely connected. In the beginning
of Maka-hannya- haramitsu, Dogen Zenji paraphrases
the Heart Sutra and says:
time of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva practicing profound
prajna paramita is the whole body clearly seeing the emptiness
of all five aggregates. The five aggregates are forms,
sensations, perceptions, predilections, and consciousness;
this is the five-fold prajna. Clear seeing is itself prajna.
To unfold and manifest this essential truth, [the Heart
Sutra] states that form is emptiness; emptiness
is form. Form is nothing but form; emptiness is
nothing but emptiness one hundred blades of grass,
ten thousand things.
twelve sense-fields are twelve instances of prajna paramita.
Also, there are eighteen instances of prajna: eye, ear,
nose, tongue, body, mind; form, sound, smell, taste, touch,
objects of mind; as well as the consciousnesses of eye,
ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. Also, there are four
instances of prajna: suffering, its cause, its cessation,
and the path [to cessation]. Also, there are six instances
of prajna: generosity, pure precepts, calm patience, diligence,
quiet meditation, and wisdom. There is also a single instance
of prajna manifesting itself right now unsurpassable
complete, perfect awakening. Also, there are three instances
of prajna: past, present, and future. Also, there are
six instances of prajna: earth, water, fire, wind, space,
and consciousness. Also, four instances of prajna are
going on daily: walking, standing, sitting, and lying
Dogen shows us that prajna (wisdom) is a practice
we perform with our whole body and mind. Our whole body
and mind clearly sees the emptiness of the five aggregates,
and that seeing is nothing other than the whole body and
mind revealed. The five aggregates see the emptiness of
the five aggregates themselves. So, this prajna cannot
be a particular way in which a subject views objects.
It cannot be just another viewpoint. In the beginning
of Genjo-koan, he discusses this point in great
detail and in the end he shows us how to practice based
on this understanding. According to Dogen Zenji our practice
is not to attain a one-time enlightenment experience and
therefore recover our buddha-nature. Practice for Dogen
is an ongoing activity. We continue to deepen and broaden
our understanding, day by day, moment after moment. We
must breathe moment after moment to stay alive, we must
digest what we eat each day. We need to keep awakening
moment by moment whenever we find that we have turned
aside from awakening.
practice of zazen is bodhisattva practice. We take four
bodhisattva vows when we begin to practice and each time
we see the incompleteness of our practice or we notice
we have deviated from our direction, we make repentance
and return to the path the four-bodhisattva vows show
us. Thus our practice is endless.
The genuine experience of buddha dharma enlightenment
and the vital path that has been correctly transmitted
is like this.
To say we should not use a fan because the nature of wind
is ever-present, and that we should feel the wind even
when we dont use a fan, is to know neither ever-presence
nor the winds nature.
said that the monk knew only the ever-presence of the
wind-nature but did not know how it permeates every
place. According to Mayoku using a fan - our moment-by-moment
practice- is the way the wind nature permeates everywhere.
this point Dogen was even stricter than Mayoku. He said
the monk did not even know the ever-presence of the wind,
let alone how it permeates everywhere.
the original story that Dogen quotes in the Mana-shobogenzo,
after the monk made a prostration, Mayoku said one more
thing, Even if I have a thousand monks, what is
the merit of monks if they dont have the actual
function?! So, in the original story it is not
clear if Mayoku acknowledged the monks prostration
or not. He might have thought the monk still didnt
have the vital function. I think Dogen cut off the final
speech of Mayoku to show that the monks prostration
is the way to use a fan to cause the wind. Another way
to see it would be: in the wind caused by Mayokus
fanning, the monk understood the point of practice and
instead of speaking using words he demonstrated it by
actual practice of a prostration.
of Buddha family
Since the winds nature is ever-present, the wind
of the Buddhas family enables us to realize the
gold of the great earth and to transform the [water of]
the long river into cream.
great earth is our world and the water of the long river
is the stream of our own life. The wind of the Buddhas
family caused by our ceaseless practice of vow and repentance
makes our world precious like gold and our own lives nutritious
like cream. Here again Dogen shows the Self and the world
of the Self (the ten thousand things) as they really are,
Like a fish in the water
Like a bird in the sky.
A fish is swimming like a fish.
A bird is flying like a bird.
First Chapter of
Shobogenzo (The True Dharma Eye Treasury)
Genjo-koan (Actualization of Reality)
This was written in mid-autumn in the first year
of Tenpuku era (1233) and given to my lay disciple,
Yo Koshu, who lived in Chinzei (Kyushu).
Compiled in the fourth year of Kencho (1252)
I gave this series of lectures on Genjo-koan from
September 1997 to March 1999 as a part of the activities
of the Soto Zen Education Center, located at the time,
at Zenshuji in Los Angeles. I have been editing and publishing
the transcriptions of my lectures for the Soto Zen Journal
Dharma Eye for five years. This has been
a very difficult but educational experience. This was
the first time for me to write my own articles regarding
Dogens teachings in English. I hope you have enjoyed
this series of lectures. I would like to express my deep
gratitude to Rev. Chiko Clelia Corona and Rev. Koshin
Steve Kelly who transcribed my lectures and who edited
my drafts. My speech and my writing are very Japanese.
It must be difficult work to turn it into real English.
would like to dedicate this series of lectures to my teacher
Kosho Uchiyama Roshi who died in March 1998 while I was
working on these lectures. Without his teachings and example
of using a fan, I would not have understood Dogen Zenjis
teachings at all.