S. upādhyāya; in ancient Indian brahmanism, the primary teacher of a young student. In Indian Buddhism, a monk who has at least ten years of seniority since full ordination and is thus qualified to sponsor the ordination of others. In present day Soto Zen, the title of reverend is afforded to any monk or nun who has inherited the dharma (shihō 嗣法), i.e. received dharma transmission (denbō 傳法). The title "most reverend" (daioshō 大和尚) is reserved for one who has headed a retreat (kessei ango 結制安居) at his or her own temple.