1. An epithet for Shakamuni Buddha, progenitor of the Buddhist dharma and sangha. 2. The founding ancestor of any lineage (shū 宗). Shakamuni is also called the "original master" in the Zen tradition because he is said to have founded the Zen lineage. 3. Ordaining master (jugōshi 受業師): the monk who initiates someone into the Buddhist monastic order by shaving their head and giving them the precepts. 4. Primary master: the dharma-transmitting master (shihō no honshi 嗣法の本師) from whom one has inherited the dharma in the Zen lineage.